Scientific Publications

Reconciliation of dipole emission with detailed balance rates for the simulation of luminescence and photon recycling in perovskite solar cells

Urs Aeberhard, Simon Zeder, and Beat Ruhstaller

Optics Express

A theoretical description of light emission, propagation and re-absorption in semiconductor multilayer stacks is derived based on the transverse Green’s functionof the electromagnetic field in the presence of a complex dielectric. The canonical dipole emission model is parametrized in terms of the local optical material Fl_OptEx_img constants and the local quasi-Fermi level splitting using the detailed balance relation between local absorption and emission rates. The framework obtained in this way is shown to reproduce the generalized Kirchhoff relations between the luminescent emission from metal halide perovskite slabs under uniform excitation and the slab absorptance of light with arbitrary angle of incidence. Use of the proper local density of transverse photon states in the local emission rate includes cavity effects in the generalized Planck law for internal spontaneous emission, which are neglected in the conventional Van Roosbroeck-Shockley formalism and avoids spurious divergencies due to non-radiative energy transfer via longitudinal modes. Finally, a consistent treatment of re-absorption provides the local rate of secondary photogeneration required for the consideration of photon recycling in an opto-electronic device simulator that includes the effects of charge transport.


Assessment of Photon Recycling in Perovskite Solar Cells by Fully Coupled Optoelectronic Simulation

Simon Zeder, Beat Ruhstaller, and Urs Aeberhard


An optical dyadic Green’s function framework to describe the transverse electromagnetic fields in a planar perovskite solar-cell stack is coupled to an electronic drift-diffusion model for rigorous treatment of Fl_AppPhys_imgphoton recycling in the wave-optics regime for a realistic photovoltaic device. The optical model provides the local reabsorption rate as well as a detailed-balance compatible radiative prefactor, which are used in the electronic model to achieve a self-consistent solution that yields the full optoelectronic device characteristics. The presented approach provides detailed insights into the impact of photon recycling on device performance under different regimes of charge transport and recombination and can help identify the various electronic and optical losses for nonideal, realistic devices. The global efficiency of photon recycling is quantified by defining quantum efficiencies of reabsorbed radiation, while the local efficiency can furthermore be quantified by defining an effective local radiative prefactor. The model introduced here can be used to guide the design of future devices that exploit the full potential of photon recycling.


A route towards the fabrication of large‑scale and high‑quality perovskite films for optoelectronic devices

Ehsan Rezaee, Dimitar Kutsarov, Bowei Li, Jinxin Bi & S. Ravi P. Silva


Halide perovskite materials have been extensively explored for their unique electrical, optical, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Most notably, solar cells based on perovskite thin films have improved their power conversion efficiency from 3.8% to over 25% during the last 12 years. However, it is still a challenge to develop a perovskite‑based ink, suitable for upscaling the fabrication process of high‑quality perovskite films with extreme purity, good crystallinity, and complete coverage over the deposition area. SURREY_img1This is particularly required if the perovskite films are to be used for the scaled production of optoelectronic devices. Therefore, to make halide perovskites commercially available for various applications, it is vital to develop a reliable and highly robust deposition method, which can then be transferred to industry. Herein, the development of perovskite precursor inks suitable for use at low‑temperature and vacuum‑free solution‑based deposition processes is reported. These inks can be further tailored according to the requirements of the deposition method, i.e., we propose their use with the industrially viable deposition technique called “slot‑die coating”. Furthermore, a route for the preparation of low‑cost and high‑volume manufacturing of perovskite films on both rigid and flexible substrates is suggested in this paper. The presented approach is suitable for the fabrication of any functional layers of perovskites, that can be employed in various scaled applications, and it seeks the potential and the methodology for perovskite film deposition that is scalable to industrial standards.